11.1 Coordinated Community Response Model to Domestic Violence

This section will provide general information on the CCRM and an overview of how the model has developed and been applied in the UK. This section will also contain information on US responses and lessons learnt.


European Manual on Risk Assessment

Albuquerque, M et al (2013)

Based on human rights principles, this manual provides in detail all the information and tools a professional needs to better understand, identify and manage the risks posed by domestic violence/intimate partner violence. Tasking a holistic approach, it recognises that risks are not just generated by the abuser’s fists but that domestic violence/intimate partner violence can also have a devastating impact on women’s self-esteem and capacity to engage as a full citizen, affecting their lives long after they have reached a place of safety and bruises have healed. Consequently guidance is also provided to promote the recovery of survivors; to restore their empowerment and autonomy.

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An Examination of Whether Coordinated Community Responses Affect Intimate Partner Violence

Post, L., Klevens, J., Maxwell, C., Shelly, G., Ingram, E.(2010) Journal of Interpersonal Violence

This study tests the impact of coordinated community response on reducing intimate partner violence and on modifying knowledge and attitudes.

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Accompanying Briefing on Presentation of Coordinated Community Response to Domestic Violence

Home Office

This document gives an overview of how the model came about and gives detailed explanation of each layer of the model represented by the various circles.

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Diagram: click here

Coordinating the Future: A national conference for those delivering the Coordinated Community Response to domestic violence

Standing Together (2008)

This report is intended to provide an overview of all the speeches and workshops of a conference held in London in April 2008. The aims of the conference were to share and enhance understanding of the current context of domestic violence coordination and its importance; and to provide a support and networking opportunity for those responsible for developing and sustaining domestic violence partnerships.

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Making the Grade? 2007: The third annual independent analysis of UK

Government initiatives on violence against women

End Violence Against Women (2008)

Making the Grade is an assessment by members of the independent violence against women sector of how UK Government Departments tackle violence against women. It is based on the responses to 12 questions, looking at how far there is a strategic framework to drive this work, alongside the basic components that must form a part of any strategy: a common definition; action plans; objectives and measures of progress; resources and capacity.

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Co-ordination Action on Human Rights Violations: the justice system as an arena for the protection of human rights for women and children experiencing violence and abuse

Humphreys, C. and Carter, R. (2006)

This report is a research synopsis on the justice system as an arena for the protection of the human rights of women and children. The focus was on the law provided for the protection against interpersonal violence with a specific focus on the intersections between criminal and family law.

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Protecting Survivors, Holding Perpetrators Accountable: briefing papers

Standing Together (2003)

This document brings together a collection of briefing papers focusing on the civil law project, the health project and training coordinated by Standing Together in the implementation of a Coordinated Community Response in West London.

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Abused Women’s Perspectives: The Responsiveness of Domestic Violence

Provision and Inter-Agency Initiatives

Hague, G. et al. (2002) [abstract]

This multi-methodological, two-year study, conducted by researchers from the Domestic Violence Research Group, University of Bristol and the Centre for the Study of Safety and Wellbeing at  the University of Warwick, aimed to return to working from a survivor perspective by listening to the voices of abused women as a source of innovative theory and policy development. It explored the extent of user participation in inter-agency initiatives, refuge groups and specialist domestic violence services, and sought examples of good practice.

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Domestic Violence- Tiers of Need and Intervention in Tower Hamlets

The London Borough of Tower Hamlets

The model of the Coordinated Community Response designed for the local authority.

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Exploring the Links Between Components of Coordinated Community Responses and Their Impact on Contact With Intimate Partner Violence Services

Klevans, J. et al. (2008)

This article establishes the impact of 10 Coordinated Community Responses (CCR) across the USA on women’s past-year exposure to intimate partner violence and contact with services and explores the associations between specific CCR components and contact with intimate partner violence services.

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Coordinated Community Response to Family Violence: The Role of Domestic Violence Service Organizations

Malik, N.M., et al. (2008) [abstract]

The study contains data from a participatory evaluation of a multisite national demonstration project on family violence in the US. This article focuses on the DV service organizations in the demonstration with regard to collaborations with other agencies and work within the dv system to respond to dually victimized families. Findings suggest that dv agencies participated in leadership roles, cross-system collaborations, and cross-system trainings throughout the initiative. Within-agency practice changes were less apparent. Research and policy implications are discussed.

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An Evaluation of Gender Differences in the Implementation and Impact of a Comprehensive Approach to Domestic Violence

Muftic, L.R. and Bouffard, J. A. (2007) [abstract]

Recently, the coordinated community response (CCR) has been developed as one example of an approach aimed at reducing domestic violence. Prior research has generally found support for the model, with male offenders recidivating at lower rates. The current study examines whether a comprehensive, community-based approach is capable of reducing recidivism rates among male and female offenders. Specific attention is given to the intervention process, including differences in service or treatment component completion and recidivism by gender.

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Theoretical and Research Support for the Duluth Model: a reply to Dutton and Corvo

Gondolf, E.W. (2007)

In this article, Gondolf responds to work of Dutton and Corvo who denounced and rejected the so-called Duluth Model of batterer intervention based on cognitive-behavioural counselling, reinforcement from the criminal justice system and coordination of additional community services.

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Coordinated Community Response to Domestic Violence

Pence, E. and McMahon, M. (1997)

This report is produced by the Duluth Project (DAIP) based in Minnosota, USA which is a pioneer in the coordinated community response to domestic violence. It invites practitioners to look at their own practices rather than focusing on the idiosyncratic characteristics of the offenders or victims. This means examining how those who work in as many as eleven different specialized agencies and five different levels of government can coordinate their work so as to protect victims' safety and discovering why they fail to do so.

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An Effective Coordinated Community Response

Pence, E.

This presentation details what an effective coordinated community response encompasses.

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Domestic Abuse Intervention Project (DAIP)

The Domestic Abuse Intervention Project (DAIP) in Duluth, Minnesota, is a comprehensive community-based program for intervention in domestic abuse cases. It attempts to coordinate the response of the many agencies and practitioners who respond to domestic violence cases in our community.

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Evaluating Coordinated Community Responses to Domestic Violence

Shepard, M and McGee, S.

This report provides a summary and analysis of research on coordinated community responses to domestic violence in the USA. It provides an overview of different mechanisms for coordination, examines individual components of a coordinated community response, and addresses the overall response.

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Evaluating the Outcomes of Domestic Violence Service Programs: Some Practical Considerations and Strategies

Sullivan, C. and Alexy, C.

This article presents key elements from the guidebook "Outcome Evaluation Strategies for Domestic Violence Service Programs: A Practical Guide" which was designed, not to discuss evaluation in the abstract, but to provide practical assistance and examples in designing and carrying out effective evaluation strategies specifically for domestic violence service providers

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Initial Advocacy Procedures for Calling Victims after an Arrest: sample document


Pence, E.


This sample document demonstrates an agreement that can be drawn up between an advocacy service and the Police and sets out the response of each agency for contacting the victim after an arrest, to support a collaborative response.


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Legal Advocate Procedures: sample draft


Pence, E.


This document sets out the procedure that is followed by legal advocates following an arrest.


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Overcoming the obstacles to an effective Coordinated Community Response


Pence, E.


This presentation sets out some of the obstacles to developing an effective coordinated community response.


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Text Analysis as a Tool for Coordinated Community Response

Pence, E.

This resource sets out how the agencies and workers are organised and informs the development of the coordinated community response. This should be read in conjunction with “An Effective Coordinated Community Response”.

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Working Agreement between Domestic Violence Advocacy Program and Law Enforcement Agency: sample draft

Pence, E.

This document is an American sample of an agreement that can be drawn   up between advocacy services and the Police. The purpose of this agreement is to standardise the collaborative domestic assault response between the two agencies and supports the coordinated community response to domestic violence.

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