4.1 A.    Research and Evaluations

Strengthening mother-child relationships as part of domestic violence recovery

Emma Katz (2014)

This briefing is based on Emma Katz’s doctoral research, completed this year at the University of Nottingham, UK: ‘Surviving Together: Domestic Violence and Mother-Child Relationships’.

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Estimating the costs of child sexual abuse in the UK

NSPCC (2014)

This report attempts to calculate the overall costs of child sexual abuse in the UK. It estimates that child sexual abuse cost £3.2bn in 2012.

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Domestic Violence, Children’s Agency and Mother–Child Relationships: Towards a More Advanced Model

Emma Katz (2013)

Although domestic violence research increasingly recognises children’s agency, this awareness has not extended to our understanding of children’s relationships with their abused mothers. Findings suggesting that some children actively support their mother, and encourage her to leave the perpetrator, have been consistently under-discussed. This article argues that the model of parent–child relationships used by most domestic violence research sees children as passive and contributes to mother-blaming discourses. Analysing key quantitative and qualitative research, I suggest that a more sophisticated model of parent–child relationships is needed to understand how children’s agency affects them, their mothers and the domestic violence situation.

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Domestic abuse: learning from case reviews

NSPCC (2013)

This at-a-glance briefing pulls together and highlights the learning from case reviews into the death or serious injury of a child where domestic abuse was a key factor.

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Parents who misuse substances: learning from case reviews

NSPCC (2013)

This at-a-glance briefing pulls together and highlights the learning from case reviews into the death or serious injury of a child where parental substance misuse was a key factor.

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Over the Limit The truth about families and alcohol

4Children (2012)

This is the fourth and final report in 4Children’s Give Me Strength campaign, which has called for an end to wasting money and wasting lives by allowing family dramas turn into crises. In the spring of 2012 the Government published an alcohol strategy which focuses strongly on the harm ‘problem drinking’ has on young people and on communities. Though this is important, we believe that families must be added to that list with a revised strategy being developed which puts reducing the impact of alcohol on families at its heart.

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Taking a longer view of contact: The perspectives of young adults who experienced parental separation in their youth

Fortin, J. Hunt, J and Scanlan, L (2012)

This study aimed to address this research gap by documenting the views of young adults who experienced parental separation in their youth.

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Evaluation of the Community Group Programme for Children & Young People: Final Report

Nolas, S. Neville, L., Sanders-McDonagh, E. (2012)

Findings from the evaluation of the Community Group Programme (CGP), a 12-week psycho-educational, group work programme for children and young people who have experienced domestic violence.

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Children and families experiencing domestic violence: Police and children’s social services’ responses

Stanley, N. et al (2009)

This research examined both the notification process itself and the subsequent service pathways followed by families brought to the attention of children's social services in this way. It also explored which other agencies contributed to services for families experiencing domestic violence and captured young people's, survivors' and perpetrators' views of services.

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Children talking to ChildLine about suicide

NSPCC (2009)

This casenote reports on what children and young people said to ChildLine about suicide in 2007/08. In some cases, these children had got to a point where they were so unhappy that they just could not see any other way out and were seriously considering taking their own lives. Indeed, a small proportion had already harmed themselves and were in urgent need of medical attention. Other children and young people however, were having suicidal thoughts but may not have been seriously considering attempting suicide.

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Impact of family breakdown on children’s wellbeing: evidence review

Mooney, A. et al. (2009)

This review, of the impact of parental separation and divorce on children’s well-being and development, was undertaken to inform policy development. It incorporates evidence concerning family breakdown and its consequences, and includes research relating to both married and cohabiting parents.

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The Children Britain Betrayed

Ferguson, L. and Oborne, P. (2009)

Almost 10 years after the death of Victoria Climbié, Dispatches investigates the failures still present in Britain's child protection system. With a child being killed by their parent or carer every seven days in the UK, and over 160 child killings since 2004, journalist Peter Oborne examines how such horrific murders might be prevented in the future.

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Improving Safeguarding Practice: study of serious case reviews 2001–2003

Rose, W. and Barnes, J. (2008)

Produced for the Department for Children, Schools and Families

This research explores the impact of case reviews and the how the lessons learnt have been put into practice, for use with the aim of informing government and local agencies about their effectiveness.

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Literature Review: better outcomes for children and young people experiencing domestic abuse – directions for good practice

Humphreys, C. et al. (2008)

This extensive review of evidence on the impact of domestic abuse on children and young people is discussed under the headings of prevalence and impacts, perspectives of children and young people, service provision, and protection of children and young people.

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Consultation with Children and Young People with Experience of Domestic Abuse on the Scottish Government National Domestic Abuse Delivery Group Draft Proposals Main Report

Smith, C. et al. (2008)

This document reports the findings from three events held to consult children and young people with experiences of domestic abuse on the draft proposals of the Scottish Government National Domestic Abuse Delivery Group. The purpose of the consultation was to ensure young people had a voice in shaping the proposals.

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The State of London’s Children Report, Chapter 4 – Staying Safe

Mayor of London (2007)

This is the third State of London’s Children Report. This series of reports continues to provide a comprehensive picture of the ways in which children and young people’s lives in London are getting better, and what has deteriorated or stayed the same.

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Behind Closed Doors: the impact of domestic violence on children

UNICEF and the Body Shop Stop Violence in the Home Campaign (2006)

This short report examines some of the underlying causes of domestic violence and the impact on children living in homes where there is violence.

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Problems at Home, Problems at School

Mills, C. NSPCC (2004)

The effects of maltreatment in the home on children's functioning at school: an overview of recent research.

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Children and Domestic Violence in Rural Areas: a child-focused assessment of service provision

Stalford, S. et al. (2003) [abstract]

Produced on behalf of Save the Children and the Countryside Agency this report provides a snapshot of the needs of children and young people who experience domestic violence in rural areas in the UK. It addresses two distinct gaps in domestic violence research and service provision.

abstract / summary / full report

Children and Domestic Violence: a research overview of the impact on children

Humphreys, C. and Mullender A. (2000)

Pamphlet produced as part of the Research in Practice series which aims to give local authorities and voluntary organisations better access to reliable research.

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Child Protection and Woman Protection: links and schisms - an overview of the research

Humphreys, C. (2000)

Produced for Women's Aid this document also includes recommendations for good practice and guidance and further issues for professional practice in the area of child protection.

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The Effects of Domestic Violence on Children’s Perceptions of their Perpetrating and Non-Perpetrating Parents

Sternberg, K. J. et al. (1994) [abstract]

The Family Relations Test was completed by eight to twelve year old children in order to assess the effects of various types of domestic violence on children's perceptions of their parents, all of whom were living with their children at the time of the study.

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Little Eyes, Little Ears: how violence against a mother shapes children as they grow

Cunningham, A. and Baker, L.  (2007)

This research produced by the Canadian National Clearing House on Family Violence draws on research to examine how violence against a mother can affect children’s development.

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Emerging Responses to Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

Edleson, J.L. and Nissley, B.A. (2006)

This article reviews what the new efforts to address children affected by domestic violence are, and puts forward an argument that the diversity of children's experiences requires equally diverse responses from our communities.

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The Effects of Childhood Exposure to Marital Violence on Adolescent Gender-Role Beliefs and Dating Violence

Lichter, E. L. and McCloskey, L. A. (2004)

Longitudinal study carried out with 208 mother child pairs in the USA who were interviewed twice over a 7 - 8 year period about their exposure to domestic violence.

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Toward a Developmental Risk and Resilience Framework for Research and Intervention

Gewirtz, A. H. and Edleson, J.L. (2004)

This paper is part of a series that addresses a widespread but often hidden challenge: how to mobilise community and programmatic resources to provide responsive help to young children and families affected by both domestic violence and poverty.

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Children, Young People and Domestic Violence

Laing, L. (2000)

This paper produced by the Australia Domestic and Family Violence Clearing House covers a variety of issues relating to children, young people and domestic violence.

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Children experiencing domestic violence in South Asian communities: domestic violence campaigning briefing 5

NSPCC

Part of a series of campaigning briefing by the NSPCC the report highlighted the need for a culturally-appropriate approach including specialist and targeted services, tailored training and appropriate education and awareness resources to be in place to improve their lives.

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Specific Issues – Child Contact

Enforcement of Contact between Children and Non-Resident Parents

Dyer, C et al. (2008)

Cardiff Law School: Family Law Research Project

One of the research aims was to discover whether legal professionals viewed the current range of available sanctions as adequate. The research involved collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. The qualitative data supplemented the basic responses with reasons for their answers.

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Relationship Separation and Child Support Study

Wikeley, N. et al. (2008)

Commissioned by the Department for Work and Pensions, the report presents findings from a major survey of the experiences and views of separated parents, in relation to child maintenance. Included in the survey were parents with care and non-resident parents, parents who had never been involved with the Child Support Agency (CSA) and CSA clients.

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Dealing with Child Contact Issues: a literature review of mechanisms in different jurisdictions

Wasof, F. (2007)

This report produced by the Scottish Executive presents the findings of a small literature review of mechanisms for dealing with child contact issues across jurisdictions in order to inform future discussions.

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Contact Applications Involving Allegations of Domestic Abuse: feasibility study

Scottish Executive Social Research (2004)

This feasibility study aimed to assess the availability and quality of existing data on contact applications by parents involving allegations of domestic abuse.

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Specific issues – Substance Use

Domestic violence and abuse experienced by children and young people living in families with alcohol problems; results from a cross-European study

ENCARE (2007)

45 children from across Europe were recruited to take part in research about how parental drinking and domestic violence impacts on their lives. It also explored coping strategies and the presence of resilience in children. The research also acknowledges that across Europe, just like within the UK, there is a lack of joined up policy regarding substance misuse and domestic violence with both issues being treated separately at both the policy and practice level, making recommendations that both the European Commission and the WHO address this with guidelines.

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Understanding and Modifying the Impact of Parents’ Substance Misuse on Children

Velleman, R. and Templeton, L. (2007) [abstract]

This article outlines the huge literature on the potentially negative impact on children of growing up with a parent who has an alcohol or drug problem, the risk factors that can exacerbate this effect and resilience and the protective factors that can reduce it.

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The Response of Child Protection Practices and Procedures to Children Exposed to Domestic Violence or Parental Substance Misuse

Cleaver, H. et al. (2006)

This study was commissioned by the Department for Children, Schools and Families focusing on children referred to children’s social care where there are safeguarding concerns and evidence of domestic violence and/or parental substance misuse.

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Understanding What Children Say: children’s experiences of domestic violence, parental substance misuse and parental health problems

Gorin, S. (2004) [executive summary]

Published for Joseph Rowntree Foundation by the National Children’s Bureau This document provides a literature review to examine what children say about living in families where there is domestic violence, parental substance misuse or parental health problems. It examines research undertaken in the UK from 1990 to 2003, to provide us with a better understanding of the range of children's experience.

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